causes of violence against women

weak legal sanctions for sexual violence.
Factors that have been at one time or another linked to women's likelihood of being raped or battered are passivity, hostility, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug use, violence in the family of origin, having more education or income than their intimate partners, and the use of violence toward children.

Media Many feminist writers (e.g., Brownmiller, 1975; Dworkin, 1991; Russell, 1993) have suggested that pornography encourages the objectification of women and endorses and condones sexual aggression toward women. consequences of violence is necessary for planning and implementing interventions to deal with those consequences. In doing this work, we have come to understand sexism and its intersections with racism, classism, and other forms of oppression to be at the root of sustaining and perpetuating violence against women. Studies of male batterers have found that some batterers confine their violent behavior to their intimates but others are violent in general (Fagan et al., 1983; Cadsky and Crawford, 1988; Shields et al., 1988; Saunders, 1992; Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart, 1994). Violence against women by men is often a show of dominance, intended to keep women in their place. Victims of intimate partner violence and rape exhibit a variety of psychological symptoms that are similar to those of victims of other types of trauma, such as war and natural disaster. Men's drinking patterns, especially binge drinking, are associated with marital violence across all ethnic groups and social classes (Kantor, 1993). In one national study, the more a woman had been assaulted, the more psychological distress she experienced (Gelles and Harrop, 1989).1. These studies provide some evidence that the habitual use of alcohol is associated with sexual victimization, but they do not explain the causal pathways. In longitudinal data, rape victims seeking care at a rape crisis center were initially similar to matched nonvictims in their self-reported physician visits, but at 4 months and 1 year after the rapes they were seeking care more frequently (Kimerling and Calhoun, 1994). Recent research found fewer than 2 percent of students accepting of sexual aggression or coercion, but up to 36 percent expected that sexual aggression would occur under certain circumstances (Cook, 1995). It should be noted that part of what is known about the consequences of violence against women comes from studies of women who were seeking help, so it may not be representative of all victims. Alternatively, alcohol consumption by women may be misperceived and misinterpreted by the men they meet as a sexual availability cue. Nor is it known if physical and sexual violence against women develop in a similar manner and what the nature and extent of the relations among them. 0000003536 00000 n These forms of violence can lead to depression, post-traumatic stress and other anxiety disorders, sleep difficulties, eating disorders, and suicide attempts. The results showed significant zero-order correlations within each class of predictors, but in multivariate analysis the social variables predicted violence better than the other variables.

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